Figure 151

Left ventricular dysfunction resulting in decreased cardiac output leads to arterial underfilling and activation of barorecptors in the aortic arch,carotid sinus, and left ventricle. These baroreceptors stimulate vasomotor regulatory centers in the medulla, which activate the sympathetic nervous system, arginine-vasopessin system. This results inincreases in heart rate,myocardial contractility, perpheral vasoconstriction, and sodium and water retention.