figure 34a
Two-dimensional parasternal short-axis views from a normal subject

A. The level of the cardiac apex shows a small, thick-walled left ventricle (LV) and only a very small portion of the right ventricle (RV).
B. Left ventricle at the level of the papillary muscles (P). The right ventricle is larger and the left ventricular cavity is uniformly round and larger than at the apical level.
C. Left ventricle, at the level of the partially opened mitral valve (MV), is larger than at the papillary muscle level.
D. Diastolic frame at the base fo the heart shows the closed aortic valve, with the right (RC), left (LC), and noncoronary (NC) cusps resembling the letter Y. The tricuspid (TV) and pulmonic (PV) valves are identified.
E. Systolic frame at the same level as D shows the open aortic valve. IAS, interatrial septum; LA, left atrium; RA, right atrium; LAA, left atrial appendage; PVn, pulmonary vein.

J.M. Felner, R.P. Martin, The Echocardiogram, The Hurst's The Heart, 8th ed., p 388.

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