Figure 94-35e

Ladder diaagram for analysis of cardiac arrhythmias.
A. Charting of P-wave and QRS complexes and deduction of conduction relationships for a normal sinus impulse are demonstrated in A1-3. The diversion of lines shown in the V level in A5 is used to indicate aberrant intra ventricular conduction, and the incomplete cross-hatched line in the AV level in A6 represents an impulse blocked inthe AV junction. The AV junctional impulses with retrograde(7) and antegrade (8), and block in both directions resulting in a concealed extrasystole (A9) are shown next.
B. Diagram used to analyse sinoatrial conduction is demonstrated .A sinus impulse that fails to conduct to the atrium is indicated as in B3.
C. Ventricular ectopic activity (e) is depicted as shown in C3, which represents a premature ventricular contraction with retrograde conduction to the atrium.

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